Predmet ove disertacije je istraživanje utjecaja usklađenosti dizajna posla te osobnih resursa i zahtjeva na inovativno ponašanje zaposlenika, putem intervenirajuće varijable radne angažiranosti. Inovativno ponašanje zaposlenika je konstrukt na razini pojedinca, a definira se kao oblik proaktivnog ponašanja koji uključuje istraživanje, generiranje, promociju i implementaciju ideja. Istraživanje je provedeno u tri vremenske točke na uzorku od 341 dijade zaposlenika i njihovih nadređenih (menadžera). Rezultati su pokazali da, uz usklađenost u dizajnu posla i neusklađenost u obliku tzv. viška na poslu imaju značajan pozitivan utjecaj na radnu angažiranost. Zatim, radna angažiranost je potvrđena kao intervenirajuća varijabla u odnosu između usklađenosti dizajna posla i inovativnog ponašanja zaposlenika. Konačno, pokazalo se da osobni zahtjevi nemaju značajan moderatorski utjecaj na radnu angažiranost i inovativno ponašanje zaposlenika. S druge strane, pokazalo se kako određeni osobni resursi, suprotno očekivanju, imaju negativan moderatorski utjecaj na radnu angažiranost i inovativno ponašanje zaposlenika.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Innovativeness is one of the necessary abilities for developing and maintaining organizational flexibility. Therefore, it is not surprising that organizations expect and encourage innovative behavior from their employees. Such behavior at individual level is defined with the construct of innovative work behavior. Innovative work behavior is a proactive process which involves exploration, generation, promotion and implementation of ideas. Unlike creative behavior, innovative behavior encompasses both idea generation and idea implementation. Job design is a non-material motivational tool that can promote or stifle employee outcomes and behaviors, including proactive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior, creativity and innovative behavior. The main research problem in this dissertation is how to stimulate innovative work behavior with job design. Research in job design literature (including studies with motivational approach) has been focused on actual levels of job characteristics. In order to explore possible (mis)fit situations in job design, this study explored the effect of different levels of both actual and wanted levels of different job characteristics, i.e. different job design configurations. The research aim of this dissertation was to gain new knowledge regarding mechanisms of person-job fit theory and job demands-resources theory by testing the effect of job design (mis)fit, and moderating effects of personal resources and personal demands on innovative work behavior of employees. In line with the motivational process in job demands-resources theory, the hypothesized mediator in this relationship is work engagement. Primary data was collected in three different time points from two different sources: employees and managers. Employees rated their actual and wanted levels of job design, personal demands, personal resources, and finally their work engagement. Their supervisors rated innovative behavior of their respected employees. This resulted with a total sample of 341 employee-supervisor dyads. The hypotheses were tested by using moderated-mediation analysis and polynomial regression. Block variable approach was used to test the effect of fit for particular job characteristics in the overall model. Additionally, literature reviews were enriched with bibliometric analyses in order to gain better understanding of the role of personal demands and personal resources in the motivational process. All measurement instruments used in the study had been previously developed. The results showed that both job design fit and over-fit (as a type of misfit) situations in job design had a positive effect on work engagement (and innovative work behavior). Interestingly, job demands and job resources have differential effects on work engagement (and innovative work behavior). For job resources, work engagement is significantly higher when employees perceive an over-fit situation (actual job resources are higher than wanted job resources) then fit situation. However, in case of job demands, work engagement is significantly higher in fit situation, compared to misfit situations. Work engagement was confirmed as a mediator of the relationship between job design fit and innovative work behavior. Finally, personal demands did not have a significant moderating effect on either work engagement or innovative behavior. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that specific personal resources, contrary to expectations, had a negative impact on both employee engagement and innovative behavior. Thus, results of this study extend both the person-job fit theory, and the job demands-resources theory.