Visoke razine radne dobrobiti rezultiraju brojnim pozitivnim ishodima kako na individualnoj, tako i na organizacijskoj razini zbog čega raste interes znanstvene i poslovne zajednice za navedeno područje. Na radnu dobrobit utječu obilježja posla, a navedena interakcija je objašnjena modelom zahtjeva i resursa posla prema kojem sva obilježja posla mogu biti svrstana u dvije kategorije – zahtjeve i resurse posla. Pregledom literature utvrđen je velik broj istraživanja modela zahtjeva i resursa posla na zaposlenicima različitih zanimanja u različitim organizacijskim okruženjima. Ipak, s obzirom na razlike u motivaciji osoba koje rade u javnom i privatnom sektoru te sektorske razlike u praksi upravljanja ljudskim potencijalima razvidan je nedostatak empirijskih istraživanja koja detaljnije istražuju razlike i sličnosti modela zahtjeva i resursa posla u dva različita okruženja odnosno u javnom i privatnom sektoru. U sklopu doktorske disertacije provedeno je empirijsko testiranje na 119 menadžera u privatnom sektoru i 85 menadžera u javnom sektoru primjenom strukturnog modeliranja metodom parcijalnih najmanjih kvadrata. Rezultati pokazuju da je u slučaju zahtjeva posla prisutna sektorska divergencija, a u slučaju resursa posla sektorska konvergencija. Konkretno, pronađen je moderatorski utjecaj sektora na vezu između radnih prepreka i radne dobrobiti. Za menadžere javnog sektora niske radne prepreke, tj. emocionalni zahtjevi i sukob posla i obitelji, povezane su s višom radnom dobrobiti, a za menadžere privatnog sektora viša razina istih radnih prepreka povezana je s marginalno višom radnom dobrobiti. Moderatorski utjecaj sektora na vezu između radnih izazova, tj. radnog opterećenja, i radne dobrobiti je izostao, baš kao i na odnos između resursa posla i radne dobrobiti. Ipak, permutacijski test pokazao je značajne razlike u vezi između radnih izazova i radne dobrobiti između javnog i privatnog sektora uz snažniju negativnu vezu u privatnom sektoru. Resursi posla, odnosno autonomija, društvena podrška, povratna informacija i prilika za profesionalni razvoj pokazuju u oba sektora pozitivnu povezanost s radnom dobrobiti.
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The field of well-being has been studied since ancient times and has been the subject of numerous scientific debates and discussions. In a world where job security, employee loyalty, and the average duration of employment with the same employer are lower than ever before, researchers are beginning to recognize that work-related well-being might be a deciding factor for keeping high-quality employees. High levels of work-related well-being result in several positive outcomes at both the individual and organizational levels, which is why the interest of the scientific and business community in this area is growing. Work-related well-being is affected by job characteristics, and this interaction is explained by the job demands-resources model. In this model, all job characteristics can be classified into two categories – job demands and resources.
A literature review identified many studies of job demands-resources model on employees of different occupations in different organizational environments. However, given the differences in the motivation of people working in the public and private sectors and sectoral differences in human resource management practices, there is a lack of empirical research examining the differences and similarities of job demands-resources model in two different environments; public and private sectors. The study in this dissertation further highlights the flexibility of the job demands-resources model by exploring the differences between the private and public sectors. As a part of the doctoral dissertation, empirical testing was conducted on 119 managers in the private sector and 85 managers in the public sector using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The job demands-resources model was first estimated on the full sample of Croatian managers in the public and private sectors. Results showed that job hindrances, i.e., work-family conflict and emotional demands, are not significantly related to work-related wellbeing. Further, job challenges, i.e., workload, are negatively related to work-related well-being. Thus, the present research suggests that workload represents a job hindrance rather than a job challenge for managers. Finally, job resources, i.e., autonomy, social support, performance feedback, and opportunity for professional development, are positively related to work-related well-being. However, the main focus of the research was on the moderating effect of the private/public sector on the relationships in the job demands-resources model.
The results show that there is sectoral divergence in job demands, and there is sectoral convergence in the case of job resources. In particular, it was found that the sector is a significant moderator of the relationship between job hindrances and work-related well-being. For public sector managers, low job hindrances are associated with higher well-being. For private sector managers, the same high job hindrances are associated with marginally higher well-being. It is important to note that the increase in job hindrances in the public sector leads to a larger decrease in work-related well-being than the increase in work-related well-being in the private sector due to the increased job hindrances. This result shows that the private sector managers cope better with increased emotional demands and work-family conflict. The moderating effect of the sector on the relationship between job challenges and work-related well-being was absent, as was the moderating effect of the sector on the relationship between job resources and work-related well-being.
Nevertheless, the permutation test showed significant differences in the relationship between job challenges and work-related well-being between the public and private sectors, with a stronger negative relationship for the private sector model. This result is somewhat expected in the Croatian context due to the known issue of labor market duality. Public sector employees are not obliged to invest significant work efforts because their jobs are secure, while the same can not be said for private sector employees. However, more research is needed to completely disentangle the complex relationship between job hindrances, job challenges, and work-related well-being. Finally, job resources show a positive connection with work-related well-being in both sectors, with no significant differences between them. This result emphasizes the practical need for companies to have high job resources if they want their managers to experience high levels of work-related well-being.