Ulaganje u obrazovanje ima višestruku ulogu u razvoju gospodarstva i društva općenito. Iako obrazovanje na makroekonomskoj razini predstavlja ključan čimbenik razvoja, njegov utjecaj jednako je očit i na mikrorazini pojedine obitelji. Također, ulaganje u srednjoškolsko obrazovanje daje izričit poticaj gospodarskom razvoju, puno više nego što je moguće postići samo osnovnoškolskim obrazovanjem. Naime, samo kvalitetnim i široko zasnovanim srednjoškolskim obrazovanjem i univerzalnim osnovnoškolskim obrazovanjem moguće je dugoročno unaprijediti gospodarske performanse. Upravo zbog toga, tijekom posljednjega desetljeća pozornost znanstvene usredotočena je na pronalaženje čimbenika koji negativno djeluju sa ishode obrazovnoga sustava, kao i na međuodnos obrazovnoga sustava i navedenih čimbenika. Teme od najvećega zanimanja jesu stope ispisa te međuodnos izostanaka učenika s nastave i obrazovnih postignuća, a kojima su u konačnici preispitivani i činitelji dostizanja „jednakosti obrazovnih izgleda“, kao i uloga države i privatnoga sektora u njihovu ostvarenju. Ovaj rad, na temelju jedinstvene baze podataka, istražuje učinke urbanih čimbenika unutar Grada Zagreba na kvalitetu i output obrazovnoga procesa u svim srednjim školama. U teorijskom smislu istražena je posebnost čimbenika utjecaja na pokazatelje obrazovnoga sustava u kontekstu izostanaka i ispisa učenika. Analizirani su čimbenici na razini škole, obitelji, pojedinaca, a poseban prostor posvećen je analizi procesa migracija na ishode obrazovnih sustava. Zatim je napravljen pregled važnijih obrazovnih sustava današnjice i analizirana su najvažnija obilježja i ishodi navedenih sustava. Nakon toga su analizirani egzogeni urbani čimbenici na razini države, regije, škola i na razini pojedinca te je istražena i važnost ulaganja u školsku infrastrukturu, odnosno dugoročnu školsku imovinu s ciljem identificiranja značajnih čimbenika smanjenja izostanaka i stope ispisa iz škole. Također je istražen i kvantificiran utjecaj veličine škola, razrednih odjeljenja te omjera broja nastavnika i učenika na izostanke i stope ispisa učenika te je analiziran utjecaj fizičkoga kapitala unutar obrazovnoga sustava na izostanke i stope ispisa učenika. Naposljetku je prikazana i važnost prometnoga sustava i izgradnje mreže objekata za pokrivanje obrazovnih potreba u kontekstu upravljanja egzogenim urbanim čimbenicima.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Investing in education in macroeconomic terms has multiple implications for the functioning of the economic system and society in general. It is a key factor in development, while the urban, organizational and financial characteristics of the education system are an extremely important determinant of social mobility, inclusion and cohesion of the economy, state and society. Precisely because of this, over the last decade, scientific attention has been focused on finding the factors that negatively affect the outcomes of the education system, as well as on the relationship between the education system and these factors. Topics of greatest interest are drop-out rates or early education withdrawal as well as the relationship between students' absenteeism and educational attainment, which ultimately re-examined the factors of achieving "equality of educational prospects", as well as the role of the public and the private sector in their realization. This paper, based on a unique database, researches the effects of urban factors within the City of Zagreb on the quality and educational process output in all secondary schools. In theoretical terms, paper researches the specificity of the factors that have an impact on the education system in the context of student absences and dropouts. Factors such as school, family and individuals are analyzed, and a special space is dedicated to the analysis of the migration process to the educational system outcomes. Then, an overview of the most important today's educational systems was made and the most important features and outcomes of these systems were analyzed. After that, exogenous urban factors were analyzed at the state, region, school and individual level, and the importance of investing in school infrastructure and long-term school assets was researched in order to identify significant factors in reducing absenteeism and school dropout rates. The impact of the size of schools, classrooms and the ratio of teachers to students on absenteeism and dropout rates was also researched and quantified, and the impact of physical capital within the education system on absenteeism and dropout rates was analyzed. Finally, the importance of the transport system and the construction of a network of facilities to cover educational needs in the context of the management of exogenous urban factors is also presented. The paper examines in detail the influence of certain factors of the family and environmental environment as a cause-and-effect relationship with unjustified and justified absences from the school. According to numerous studies, absences are the most reliable indicator of early warning for dropping out of school. Namely, it has been empirically proven that the number of days spent outside the classroom affects more frequent absences during the entire schooling, resulting in most cases complete withdrawal. Putting the school reality at the center, the mentioned factors were chosen since everyone is at a loss; parents, school and student and ultimately the local community. Among the family factors that have an impact on education are primarily the socioeconomic status of parents and their educational achievements. Namely, the results of numerous studies show that parents with higher socio-economic status contribute to better educational achievements of children. However, the influence of parenting style and the appearance of students of such parents in the types of behavior called deviance, violence and theft are related to these factors. The results of previous research suggest that parental education is not a crucial factor in explaining children’s behavior. A number of everyday circumstances such as peer groups, school environment, general aspirations in society, etc. also have an impact on children's behavior, and this impact can be significantly greater than parental education and parenting style. The structure of the family (single-parent, for example), cohesion among family members, participation of parents in school activities, migration status also have a great influence. Cultural and ethnic characteristics also have an impact on children's behavior (more pronounced in female students) and when they deviate significantly from the average, cultural differences influence the development of negative behavioral characteristics - such as absenteeism due to discomfort. in addition to absences, they are inevitably associated with poorer educational achievements. Furthermore, the paper considers the influence of the environment through exogenous urban factors; differences in the impact of large and small schools and large and small classrooms on student achievement and absences, gender of students and type of school, infrastructure on student achievement and absences. The results showed that in large schools of urban settlements, students have higher educational achievements, but also aggregated, higher absenteeism rates, which indicates that a more developed environment develops more homogeneous social units. The impact and level of development of the general educational infrastructure has been proven. In contrast, smaller classrooms produce better educational attainment due to the consequent easier adaptation to the individual needs of students. The impact of the physical capital is also shown within the education system on student absences and dropout rates and the development of required competencies; better equipment of the school, as a rule, brings better, more competitive educational results, and its involvement in intercity infrastructure flows reduces absenteeism. Finally, the relevant quantities at the micro level are quantified. Here is presented the micro aspect of education planning through exogenous factors and instrumental elements of input. The example of the city of Zagreb has proven that the importance of the number of classrooms, school size and the share of school space in the size of the city district on the variability of justified and unjustified absences is not unambiguous but categorical, so its impact on lower and upper grades is determined differently. It is the same with transport infrastructure. From conclusions of the research, it is clear that a multidimensional approach is necessary to improve the school system in order to achieve better educational outcomes and reduce absenteeism, that is dropouts.